Ключевые слова: кровососущие двукрылые, слепни, гематофаги, видовой состав, переносчики возбудителей заболеваний человека и животных
Источник: Материалы конференции: Science progress in European countries: new concepts and modern solutions, proceedings of the 1st International scientific conference. ORT Publishing. Stuttgart. 2013. - P. 6-7. (Штутгард, Германия).
Сведения об авторе: Калиева Айнагуль Балгауовна, кандидат биологических наук, доцент кафедры «Биология и экология".
Обзор слепней (Diptera, Tabanidae) Северо-Восточного
Казахстана (Павлодарская область)
Observation of gadflies (Diptera, Tabanidae) in the north-east of Kazakhstan (Pavlodar region)
Kalieva Ainagul Balgauovna, S. Toraigyrov Pavlodar State University,
associate professor of the Department of Biology and Ecology
Калиева Айнагуль Балгауовна, Павлодарский государственный университет
им.С. Торайгырова, доцент кафедры биологии и экологии
The blood-sucking insect is a collective name, applied to the group of two-winged blood-sucking insects, i.e. mosquitoes, black flies, gadflies, biting midges. They widely inhabit all the natural zones of Kazakhstan: from hot south and west of the Republic to high-mountain Alpine meadows of the Tian Shan, the Saur-Tarbagatai, the Altay and the Bayanaul-Karkaraly ranges, including Pavlodar Cisirtysh area. Blood-sucking two-winged insects are mostly wide-spread in flooded areas near rivers, lakes and waterlogged massives.
The gadflies (tribes Tabanidae) are the biggest among two-winged blood-sucking insects, having populated almost the whole territory of CIS.
As it is well-known from literary sources gadflies in comparison with other two-winged blood-sucking insects do a lot of harm to agricultural animals and only in separate areas of the country fall in with mosquitoes and black flies. They attack people and animals in a great number, as a result, this fact makes cattle grazing difficult. In its turn this leads to loss in animals productivity and in some cases to serious diseases like enthomotoxicus, appearing as a result of toxic influence of poisonous saliva of these insects, which gets into animals bodies if gadflies have hemophilia.
Moreover, the gadflies are considered to be carriers of dangerous infections (malignant anthrax, rabbit disease, goat fever etc.) and play a great role in epizootology of corresponding diseases .
The summarized data on gadflies of Kazakhstan V.V. Shevchenko was the first, who brought in 1961. In his monographs he cited information on spreading, ecology, harmful meaning of 72 types of gadflies. Also zoogeographic division into districts have been carried out, patterns of formation of fauna complexes of gadflies in different landscape-climatic zones of Kazakhstan have been defined . This unique work has not lost its scientific meaning yet.
Henceforth, the gadflies as an important components of gnats were studied in all administratve-natural regions of Kazakhstan. A number of theses on the gnats appeared, the gadflies being a part of them also were researched.
In the north-east Kazakhstan blood-sucking two-winged insects have not been studied enough till the last years (2000-2004). Existing data in scientific literature did not give entire notion about species composition, patterns of spreading, season dynamics and day-night rhytm of activity, harmful meaning of these insects, especially gadflies, in various landscape conditions.
The first thorough study of the gadflies of middle course of the river Irtysh, beginning with small town Krivinka of Beskaragay district( the former Semey oblast) and finishing with the Omsk oblast of Russia conducted V.A. Sineltschikov (1962). He partially carried out the research in the territory of the Bayanaul region. As a result of this in the territory of the Pavlodar oblast there 23 types of gadflies were revealed. He made zoogeographic and ecological analysis of gadflies faunas in comparative aspect between Russia and the East-Kazakhstan oblast. Species composition of gadflies of Bayanaul mountain-woodland massive was thoroughly studied by S.A. Alikhanov (1989). In his work he indicated that about 25 species are wide-spread. Actually he revealed 20 species and 3 subspecies of gadflies .
In the present work the materials on gadflies of the middle course of the river Irtysh, collected from 2004 to 2012, have been observed. Indoor research were conducted in all regions of the Pavlodar oblast and surroundings of Pavlodar city.
As a result of conducted research for the first time for north-east Kazakhstan (Pavlodar oblast) a full species composition, landscape confinedness, ecological features and economic meaning of gadflies were pointed. Besides, first for Kazakhstan was introduced a gadfly Heptatoma pellucens F)  in the floodplain of the river Irtysh - - H. lurida, H. l. lundbecki, H. bimaculata, H. montana morgani, T. maculicornis, H. erberi, Haem. pallidula.
Species composition of gadflies in Pavlodar oblast accounts about 35 species with subspecies, related to 6 types - Hybomitra (37%), Tabanus (26%), Chrysops (14%), Haematopota (11%), Atylotus (9%) and Heptatoma (3%). The base for species composition form representatives of the first 4 types.
In the floodplain of the river Irtysh dominate - Tabanus аutumnalis autumnalis (id - 24-30,1%), Hybomitra nitidifrons confiformis (id - 23,5-26,7%), H. сiureai (id – 11,4-13,6%), H. distinquenda (id – 10-13,7%), in Bayanaul mountain-woodland massive - - Haematopota pluvialis (ИД-24,7%), T. b. bromius (17,3%), H. nitidifrons confiformis (ИД-16,1%), Atylotus rusticus (ИД-14,3%). Throughout the region H. muehlfeldi, Chrysops relictus, Haem. subcylindrica, H. lundbecki lundbecki, H. m. montana, H. m. morgani, Haem. pallidula, H. nitidifrons nitidifrons, H. distinquenda, H. sareptana, Haem. turkestanica, Haem. subcylindrica are still insignificant.
Species composition of gadflies of the researched region has heterogeneous nature and consists of various fauna groups, related to Boreurasian, Mediterranean and Afroeurasian types of fauna. Ground for species composition form elements of fauna groups (taiga-wooland, taiga-eastern-Siberian, European-Siberian woodland, forest steppe) of Boreurasian type (22; 62,85%). Forest steppe (8; 36,4%) and Eurasian-Siberian representatives of woodland massive complex dominate (7; 31,8%). In all natural-climatic zones of the region one can come across with 6 types (27,3%) of taiga-woodland gadflies and taiga-eastern-Siberian complex is represented only by 1 type.
In plain steppe zone and intrazonal landscape of the floodplain of the river Irtysh the gadflies begin their flight in the first and second decades of June and finish their activity at the end of the third decade of August. In Bayanaul mountain-woodland massive the gadflies begin their activity in the second and third decades of June. Throughout the region massive flight is noted in the second half of June and July. The gadflies attack people and animals from 9-11 a.m. to 20-21 p.m. with population peak at 14-16 p.m. at noon. The total time of diurnal activity of gadflies is 12 hours.
Therefore, most of gadflies, attacking animals, are dominating and subdominating types with total index of dominatiion 95,18%, which present practical interest as infestants of agriculture like insects-hemophages.
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