In order to science has become a source of new technologies of Kazakhstan, it needs serious government support in building a system of "education - science - production - market."
No matter what place takes science in the lives of many countries in the world, they do not stop searching for ways of development that ensures its role as the locomotive of the economy. For example, the US economy entered at the fifth and sixth technological structure. The share of fifth structure in it reaches 60%, and the sixth - 5%. In Russia, the kernel of the fifth (the sixth is absent) already constitute 10%: this is the electronic industry, computers, fiber-optic technology, software, telecommunications, robotics, production and processing of gas and information technology.
And what is a sixth structure? According to the classification of Russian scientists, described in the media, it is nanoelectronics, molecular and nanophotonics, nanomaterials and nanostructured coatings, nano-system technology, socio-humanitarian, information, bio, nanobiotechnology, cognitive sciences, as well as the convergence of the nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies.
For comparison, Kazakhstan still does not confident master in the framework of the fourth structure (automobile building, petro-chemistry), although there is a great desire and attempts to look beyond the boundaries that separate us from the high-level research in the fields of biotechnology, genetic engineering, new kinds of energy and materials, learning of space, satellite communication and so on.
In principle, for some separate countries the division into technological structures has a conditional significance, especially in the modern world. The presence ideas of direct interest of the State in the development of science and science-intensive production, training of cadres, material resources and adequate funding for research programs and allows to solve the problems of scientific community of the advanced countries.
On the interest of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the development of knowledge-based economy evidenced the fact that President Nursultan Nazarbaev set the task in the next 10-15 years to create a knowledge-intensive economic base. And the head of State does not the first time addresses to this subject. It is initiated the law on science and principles of financing science and other reforms. A lot of things have already been put into practice.
The government for all the years of independence the country has always supported the development of the national science. According to the Committee on Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan, spending for science from the state budget for the period since 2000 has increased from 1.9 billon tenge till 43.3 billion in 2014. Overall, in 2014 expenditure on research and development amounted to 66.3 billion tenge. The share of the costs of research and development in the GDP - an indicator of science intensity of GDP - this year was 0.17%.
But despite all these efforts, we are significantly backward from the developed countries in the research intensity of the GDP. Let me remind you, we are only in the fourth technological order, which indicates to what extent the low efficiency of Kazakh science and its weak links in the real economy science.
Analysis of the scientific and technical programs, registered in "National Center for Scientific and Technical Information" JSC, showed that in 2013 for the implementation of 101 programs under the program financing has been allocated over 19 billion tenge. From them to perform research aimed 89% and the introduction of scientific and technological development - 0.2, on development work - 3.7%.
Other words, the introduction of the results of scientific research into practice does not belong to the strengths of the Kazakh science. But international experience shows that in developed countries investing in research and development has become a priority for the growth of competitiveness of the country.
Clearly, science can not give effect immediately, research themselves, testing results, the introduction, it all takes a very long time. There is a fundamental science (the cornerstone of scientific activity), the economic effects of which can not talk at all: it is often the study of Kazakh scientists in such fields of knowledge is always current in physics, mathematics, astrophysics, biology, medicine and other, are in great attention and recognition the international scientific community.
And what about applied science, the small amount of introduced works must be an alarm. We must finally delve down to reasons moreover we do not have to seek them long. First - that is on the surface. The weak link is the integration of science and production, or at least its approach to its needs.
The innovative process as seems runs in the direction from the production to science. At first untargeted research are conducted, which do not take into account the needs and capacities of production, and then there is the problem of using the obtained result. Even if it is patented, there is a search whom to offer it. That is, scientists work on their plans, business - according to their own ones and their plans did not cross, with very few exceptions. However, the points of intersection for them a lot, and they are among priorities, named by President.
The head of State called the industries in which the cooperation of science and industry would give a perfect result. This view is supported in his article "Science as a strategic priority in the formation of the industrial-innovative economy" reputable scientist and economist, Academician of NAS the RK Amanzhol Koshanov offers to focus on research in the areas where we are initially strong.
The President, in particular, speaks of improving the efficiency of the mining sectors, "They - our natural competitive advantage. We need new approaches to management, mining and processing of hydrocarbons, keeping the export potential of the oil and gas sector. "Is not it a field of activity for scientists? Is not the problem, for example, to reduce the cost of transportation of highly paraffinic oil by pipelines, are not relevant for Kazakhstan?
The most advantageous from the point of view of the development of the Kazakh science, in my opinion, - translation onto innovative rails of the agriculture complex.
"Global demand for food will grow ... We need to develop agricultural science and build experimental agro-innovation clusters. It is important to keep up with the time, and along with the production of natural food to lead the development of drought-tolerant genetically modified crops ", - said Nursultan Nazarbayev. Here is another natural area of research for Kazakhstan, which include cattle breeding of highly productive breeds of livestock and drought-resistant, not only dependent on weather extremes and pests varieties of crops.
The Head of State calls to establish in the country's mobile and multimedia industries, nano-technologies and space robotics, genetic engineering, research and opening of the energy of the future, that is, we are talking about the points of growth that will ensure the future of our knowledge-based industries. And here we must decide what is more profitable for us: the acquisition of technology abroad or organization of its research and development.
Development of transport system, agglomerations, energy ...Every five years, according to the President, should commemorate the emergence in our country a new branch of science and industry.
But are we capable today to provide these plans? The answer to this question is not characterized by optimism. If you do not give qualitative assessments of the different phenomena and processes, then there is now a model of science can be described as follows.
This is an inefficient control over the resources, allocated for science because of the lack of coordination on the part of industry representatives and innovative organizations, a real connection with the needs of society, a significant narrowing of the research front, especially in the applied sciences.
Due to lack of competitiveness disappeared directions (and organizations), especially in the industry sector. A significant part of the academic science sector, including many public research centers, do not use the benefits inherent in the essence of program-oriented funding. All this leads to a degradation of their scientific potential, lagging behind the world leaders.
In this series, it is also necessary to note the slow convergence of science and education. The solution of this problem could be give a new impulse to the process of the revival of the national science. Finally, there is sharp question about the management in science, which does not meet modern economic realities
There are management problems, existing in scientific, technology and innovation spheres in Kazakhstan. I will name them: the lack of a single legislative act, which would regulate all relations in the complex field of relations between science and production. Law of the RK "On Science" regulates scientific and scientific and technical activity and the Law "On state support of industrial innovative activity" - innovations in the industry. Each of these areas is based only on its public policy.
There is the Committee of Science MES,organs of management of industrial science administrators (more than ten) in scientific and scientific and technical spheres for the realization of State policy. In the sphere of innovation the policy is determined by the Ministry of Investment and Development of Kazakhstan with its divisions, including the National Agency for Technological Development, the centers of commercialization and technology transfer, the three industrial design offices, funds and so on. That is, two important components of the innovative development are not linked into a whole piece by any legislation or any single body of government management.
Five structures are engaged in management in field of science of (Art. 17 of the Law "On Science") : The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Supreme Scientific and Technical Commission (SSTC), National Scientific Councils, the authorized body, industrial authorized bodies.
SSTC and the National Councils are a public-advisory structures and sectoral competent authorities in the field of scientific and technical activities created a number of joint-stock companies Ltd., which, by and large, is wasting funds, allocated for science. We can not allow it.
On the instructions of the Head of the State President is planned to increase the share of investment in science to 2020 till 2%, by 2050 - up to 3% of GDP. The efficient use of these funds is only possible with the participation of the scientific community in the development and implementation of programs and strategies for the development of the real sector.
Here you need to think about the unified coordination of science and innovation than now no one does. I will say more: today need a body that would provide uniform, purposeful actions of both spheres. Today, scientific organizations do not actually participate in the development of strategic programs, which are developed and implemented at the state level. The current Ministry of Education in connection on account of the large volume and diversity of the tasks before it can hardly solve these features.
Such authorized body could be the National Agency of RK on scientific, technical and innovative activities under the President, who could be a state customer for science and the main coordinator in the system of academic, applied and industrial science, and would control the process of introduction of research results in the production.
I will call the basic functions of it. The definition of priority directions of science and technologies, coordination of the research organizations and organizations on innovation activity, planning and organization of elaboration, having national importance and addressing for solving of scientific and technical problems, organization of introduction into production of discoveries, inventions, and the results of exploratory research.
Among the tasks of the Agency also there is participation in drawing up plans of financing R & D and development of material-technical base of science, the organization of providing scientific and technical institutions with modern domestic and foreign unique equipment and materials, protection at a law level of developers, including private individuals for the results their intellectual activity.
It is also the creation of a new legal basis of science in general, ensuring of the transition to program-targeted, project financing of scientific, technical and innovative activity, state support for small and medium-sized innovative businesses, the creation of a legal basis and economic mechanisms that lead to the freedom of scientific creativity, equal access to information and other resources. In other words, it is about ensuring competition, and creation of a system of extra-departmental objective evaluation of ideas and results.
Resolution of the agency on matters related to its competence in the field of scientific, technical and innovation activities must be mandatory for all ministries and departments.
Particular attention in the activity of the agency should be paid to issues of commercialization of research results. In international practice, a wide application received modern software-target concept of financing of science, defined as performance-based budgeting (PBB).
The planning system, providing a direct link between budgetary resources and actual results is implemented in Belarus and Russia in the financing of scientific and technical programs. Its main provisions may be used in the agency's activities. In particular, when selecting of projects for conducting research projects should support only those projects that meet the principle of BOR: the presence of a particular consumer and co-financing of his side.
Provision should be made a compulsory commercialization by the state customer of the results of scientific and technical activities, created a fully or partially at the expense of the Republican and (or) local budgets, as well as to determine the mechanism for the preparation and transfer of innovation to production and development, the task on production of newly introduced products, developed on the basis of research, development and technological works.
Responsibility for the timely and proper execution of tasks must carry government customers. If an output of newly introduced products are not initiated within 3 years after the completion of elaboration , the expended funds from the republican budget are recognized as inefficient to use and refundable.
The complex of the proposed measures aimed at the creation of a system of financing, is conducive to a real return on invested assets and more effective interaction between the two sectors - the scientific and the real economy.
Author: Adil IBRAYEV, President of "National Center for Scientific and Technical Information" JSC